28 July 2009

The Evolution Of The Railway Industry In Johor

THE evolution of the railway industry in Johor reflected the state's attempt to assert its independence against British forward movement. In 1899, Frank Swettenham had planned to connect the Federated Malay States (FMS) Railway from Prai to Singapore passing through Johor. Sultan Ibrahim and his advisors, among them Datuk Sri Amar DiRaja Abdul Rahman Andak, objected to the proposal.

It was an attempt to force Johor to accept colonial rule. The FMS offered two alternatives. First, for Johor to raise the capital and the FMS will build the railway for her or alternatively, a loan to Johor on the condition that a British auditor be placed in Johor's establishment. Sultan Ibrahim resolutely stood by his principle of preserving Johor's independence and insisted that Johor build the railway.

After protracted negotiations between Sultan Ibrahim and Swettenham, the Railway Convention was finally signed on July 11, 1904 in London.The cost of laying 193.92km of tracks from Gemas to Johor Baru was $12,460,881. Johor was given a loan of $11 million to be settled in 21 years ending Dec 31, 1925. But Sultan Ibrahim's government settled it in full after 14 years, as proof that Johor was economically and financially independent.

It was a difficult railway to build as there were no roads or other forms of communication, except for 35km of partly metalled road out of Johor Baru. A thick wall of forest had to be cut through from Gemas. Heavy rain made the workers sick all the time.

Construction was completed on Sept 31, 1908. The opening ceremony by Sultan Ibrahim, witnessed among others by Governor Sir John Anderson, was held at the Johor Baru Station on Dec 12, 1908, followed by a train ride to Gemas at the Johor-Negri Sembilan border.

In 1911, Johor leased the tracks to the FMS from Jan 1, 1912 to Dec 31, 1932, effectively losing control to the British. The agreement was extended for another 21 years to Dec 31, 1953.The completion of the railway made it imperative in the eyes of the Colonial Office for Johor's administration to be assimilated to that of the FMS. It was the signal for British intervention.
The first General Advisor, Douglas Graham Campbell, arrived in Johor Baru by train on Jan 7, 1910.

From Johor Baru, the FMS launched a ferry service to connect the Singapore railway at Kranji that was completed in 1903. The service was operated by Wagon Ferry, consisting of two vessels that can accommodate five trucks of goods.

Before the FMS railway came into being, passengers from Singapore would disembark at Kranji and cross the Straits of Johor by passenger boats to Tangga Duke and later to Abu Bakar Pier situated at the mouth of Sungei Air Molek. The pier was demolished after a temporary railway station was completed in 1911.

In 1919, a causeway linking Johor and Singapore was constructed. It was opened in July 1924. A drawbridge and a lock system were incorporated at the Johor end to allow for ships sailing east and west. Railway crossing was then possible.The drawbridge and lock were demolished by the retreating British forces in the face of the advancing Japanese.

The original station was at the foot of Bukit Meldrum, the site of the present Central Police Station. Sultan Ibrahim directed his architect friend to design a building, complete with accommodation and dining facilities, as a railway station. The plan was approved by the FMS and the station was constructed at Kampong Jim Quee where it now stands.The evolution of the railway in Johor was the manifestation of Sultan Abu Bakar's dream.More importantly, it was the catalyst for the socioeconomic development of the state.

New frontiers were exploited. Large tracts along the railway were opened up for commercial agriculture like rubber, that was first introduced in Johor in 1884, and oil palm in 1928. Growth centres mushroomed.

A network of roads totalling 523km was constructed in 1911 connecting the towns to the railway. Ironically, road development unavoidably provided competition to the railway. The opening of the causeway encouraged growth of motor transport. The west coast areas continued to carry on a coastal trade with Singapore.

In 1923, the government continued to construct another 1,000km of roads lateral to the railway. The railway and roads faced healthy competition, leading to lower costs and improved efficiency in conveyance of goods and passengers.This was of prime importance in developing the wealth of the state.

Export and import trade flourished. Communication was enhanced.Human transit was unrestricted, and this assisted in building communities and establishing a progressive, unified and tolerant society.

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

23 July 2009

FMSR Steam Railcar

Know as Sentinel Railcar Click for more info

Info table : click for large view

A series of steam railcars built by Sentul works

Believed to be inspired by the railmotors of the Great Western Railway (UK), this railcar was built by Sentul works in 1917, based around a conventional 0-6-0 chassis. Little is known about its working life, but it was converted to a conventional coach in 1931, and the trailer coaches were still in use by the engineering department in the 1980s.

Class Unc
Sentul           1915-17              
Sentul           1915-17               
Sentul           1915-17               
Sentul           1915-17     

More info about Sentinel Click Here

FMSR Class WD - MacArthur

Origin - U.S. Army Transportation Corps
Builder - Alco, Baldwin, Davenport (USA)
Cylinder - 16 x 24 inches
FMSR Number range - Not allocated, ran with USATC numbers
Boiler Pressure - 185 psi
KTM Class - 90
Driving Wheel Diameter - 48 inches
KTM Number range - 901.01-901.25
Water Capacity - 4,168 galons
Introduced - 1944
Extinct - c1973
Weight Full - 52 tons
Tractive Effort - 20,100 lb

The famous American "MacArthur" 2-8-2 heavy freight locos were introduced to the Far East during and after World War 2. They could be seen in many Asian countries including Burma, Thailand, India, and The Phillipines.

Odd examples even found their way to Africa and New Zealand. A total of 48 examples worked in post-war Malaya under the ownership of the USA Transportation Corps. In 1946 28 were sold to the Malayan Railway, and 20 to Thailand. In 1948/9, 16 of the Malayan locos were sold to the Tanganyika Railway, subsequently part of East African Railways, leaving 12 in Malaya. Some of these lasted to the end of steam on KTM in the 1970s.

21 July 2009

Bukit Timah Railway Station

The Bukit Timah Railway Station was opened in 1915 as part of the Singapore-Kranji Railway, also known as the Singapore Government Railway. Constructed between 1900 and 1902, the line ran from the terminal at Tank Road towards Woodlands via Cuppage Road, Newton Circus, Cluny Road and finally to Bukit Timah, before proceeding to Kranji and Woodlands where it continued to Malaysia via the former Federated Malay States Railway. Before the causeway was opened in 1923, passengers had to take a ferry across the Straits of Johor to continue their train ride. In 1918, the government of the Federated Malay States purchased all the properties and lands of Singapore Railway for $4,136,000 and was renamed as the Federated Malay States Railway.

In 1932, the new Tanjong Pagar terminal station was completed and the original line from Tank Road to Bukit Timah was dismantled around seven years later due to dwindling passenger flow. Due to changes in immigration policies in 1993 when the immigration checkpoint at Tanjong Pagar was moved to Woodlands, the Bukit Timah station is now only used for crossings and there are no longer boarding of passengers or collection of cargo at this station. However, there is an interesting daily routine here where the exchanges of key tokens take place. The exchange of tokens serves as proof of authority for the train to proceed further from Bukit Timah.

A worker on the train would throw the key packed in a bag to a staff on the platform. The station master would then return a new key token in a bag to another worker on the train. These tokens would later be sent to the relevant authorities for immigration purposes. The presence of the station today is often indicated by the classic cast iron bridge spanning above Bukit Timah Road and Dunearn Road.

In the early 1900s, one of the Swiss Club members successfully requested for a stop along the railway 50 yards, or about 46 metres, from the Swiss Club Road. The stop came to be known as Holland Road Halt and existed for 30 years. In 1932, the rails were relaid to the present route that now runs from Tanjong Pagar via Holland Village to Bukit Timah Village. Up till about the First World War, members of the Swiss Club would take the railway to Holland Road Halt and then hop on the bullock carts to travel to the Bukit Tinggi clubhouse. After the war, cars became available and the Halt became neglected and finally had to give way to the new Dunearn Road built on the old rail track.

20 July 2009

FMSR Mallet

Origin - FMSR
Builder Baldwin, USA
Cylinder - 13x22 in, 19x22 in
FMSR Number range - 1, 2
Boiler Pressure - 180 psi
Driving Wheel Diameter - 44 in
Water Capacity - 2,122 gallons
Introduced - c1920
Weight Full - 50 t
Extinct - 1930
Tractive Effort - 18,250 lb

A number of American locos were delivered between 1918-1920, including two 0-6-6-0 Mallets which were originally destined for Russia. They reputedly worked heavy freight trains between Port Swettenham (Klang) and Kuala Lumpur until 1930. The photo of Number 105 was found in the KTM Gallery, but shows a loco of the same type on the Central Railway of Peru (thanks to Zacky for this info). The other picture, from J.A. Stanistreet's book, is presumable from the FMSR archives. The fencing around the footplate is a typical Russian feature. At least one locomotive of this type worked in the Philipines on a timber railway, and has been preserved.

19 July 2009

FMSR Sentinel Steam Railcar

Origin - FMSR
Builder - Sentinel, England
FMSR Class - SR
FMSR Number range - SR1-12 e
KTM Class - 25 and 26
Introduced 1930

11 Sentinel steam railcars ran in Malaya. The Class 25 and 26 railcars were classic Sentinel railcars, typical of vehicles exported all over the world by this company.

Unlike convention locomotives, the Sentinel power units had vertical boilers and geared transmission. The class 25 had a 4 wheel power bogie, whilst the class 26 had a 6-wheel power unit. These vehicles survived long enough to be allocated post-war numbers, but must have been withdrawn before the Class 26 diesel railcars were introduced in 1966.

KTM Number range (Name Carried) :
  • 251.01 SRI KANCHIL
  • 252.01 RAJA WALI
  • 252.02 RAJA UDANG
  • 252.03 TEKUKOR
  • 252.04 SERINDIT
  • 261.01 SRI LAJU
  • 261.02 SRI LANCHAR
  • 261.03 SRI LAJAK
  • 261.04 ENGGANG
  • 261.05 KIJANG
  • 261.06 SELADANG

FMSR Class T

Origin FMSR
Builder W. Bagnall, England
FMSR Class T
Cylinder 13 x 20 inches
FMSR Number range 13-17, 26-28, 70, 71
Boiler Pressure 160 psi
KTM Class 32
Driving Wheel Diameter 39 inches
KTM Number range 321.01-321.05
Water Capacity 750 gallons
Introduced 1926
Extinct 1966
Weight Full 31 tons
Tractive Effort 11,787 lb

321.01 was sold into industrial use, and has subsequently been preserved in post-war livery at the National Museum (Muzium Negara) in Kuala Lumpur. The first and last photos above are of the same loco, some 70 years apart.

FMSR Class S

Origin - FMSR
Builder - North British Locomotive Co (Scotland), Beyer Peacock (England)
FMSR Class - S
Cylinder - 17 x 24 inches
FMSR Number range - 237-252
Boiler Pressure - 180 psi
Driving Wheel Diameter - 54 inches
Water Capacity - 3,000 gallons
Introduced - 1928
Extinct - 1959
Weight Full -108 tons
Tractive Effort - 29,480 lb

Class "S" was delivered in three batches between 1928 and 1930. The first two batches were from North British, and the third from Beyer Peacock. The S class was a big step forward, having 3 cylinders and consequently more power than their predecessors. The earlier batches had Gresley conjugated valve gear, whilst later examples had Rotary Cam valve gear. At some stage, these locos were modified with smoke deflectors and sloping running plate, giving a much more modern appearance, further enhanced by conversion to oil firing after the war.

KTM Class - 55
KTM Number range (Name Carried) :
551.01 - 551.03


552.01 - 552.08

* 552.07 SIR C.B.H. MITCHELL

553.01 - 553.05


FMSR Class R

Origin - FMSR
Builder - Baldwin, USA
FMSR Class - R
Cylinder - 16 x 20 inches
FMSR Number range - 3-12, 14, 35
Boiler Pressure - 160 psi

KTM Class - 31
Driving Wheel Diameter - 42 inches
KTM Number range - 311.01-311.10
Water Capacity - 1,000 gallons

Introduced - 1920
Extinct - 1964

Weight Full - 38 tons
Tractive Effort - 17,554 lb

FMSR Class Q

Origin - FMSR
Builder - Baldwin, USA
FMSR Class - Q
Cylinder - 17 x 24 inches
FMSR Number range - 202-213
Boiler Pressure - 170 psi
KTM Class - 51
Driving Wheel Diameter - 54 inches
KTM Number range - 511.01-511.12
Water Capacity - 2,056 gallons
Introduced - 1919
Extinct - 1959
Weight Full - 79 tons
Tractive Effort - 18,553 lb

The FMSR purchased most of its rolling stock from Great Britain, but post-war supply and demand problems meant they had to turn to The USA. These Baldwin pacifics served in Thailand during the war.

FMSR Class P

Origin - FMSR
Builder - Kitson (England), North British (Scotland)
FMSR Class - P
Cylinder - 17 x 24 inches
FMSR Number range - 182-201
Boiler Pressure - 160 psi
KTM Class - 52
Driving Wheel Diameter - 54 inches
KTM Number range - 521.01-521.20
Water Capacity - 2,000 gallons
Introduced - 1914
Extinct - 1958
Weight Full - 78 tons
Tractive Effort - 19,645 lbs

Superheated version of class H. Some locos intended for Malaya were diverted to India, and were replaced in a later batch. All these locos were moved to Thailand and later Burma during the war, but were returned to Malaya in the 1950s.

FMSR Class O

Origin - FMSR, KTM
Builder - North British Locomotive Co, Scotland
FMSR Class - O
Cylinder - 13 x 24 inches
FMSR Number range - 60-87
Boiler Pressure - 250 psi
KTM Class - 56
Driving Wheel Diameter - 54 inches
Water Capacity - 3,530 gallons
Introduced - 1938
Extinct - c1974
Weight Full - 104 tons
Tractive Effort - 23,940 lb

The class 56 was the ultimate development of the Malayan pacific, similar to the earlier classes 54 and 55, but with rotary cam poppet valve gear.

As well as improving the steaming, this feature helped to reduce hammer blow on the lightweight track. These locos could be seen everywhere on the Malayan system, and were the last class in service.

One loco ran without smoke deflectors for a time in the 1950s. Up to six locos were preserved, but it is not known if they all still exist. 564.33 and 564.36 have worked specials, and were even brought out of retirement to work freight during a motive power shortage.

KTM Number range (Name Carried):
  • 561.01 JOHORE BAHRU (Official Name) MALACCA
  • 561.02 KOTA TINGGI (Official Name) ALOR GAJAH
  • 561.03 JASIN
  • 561.04 KULIM
  • 561.05 MUAR
  • 561.06 BATU PAHAT
  • 561.07 KLUANG
  • 561.08 MERSING
  • 561.09 ?
  • 561.10 PASIR MAS (Official Name) KOTA TINGGI
  • 561.11 KUALA LANGAT (Official Name) PONTIAN
  • 562.01 ?
  • 562.02 BENTONG (Official Name) JOHORE BAHRU
  • 562.03 KEMAMAN
  • 562.04 DUNGUN
  • 562.05 REMBAU (Official Name) MARANG
  • 563.01 BESUT
  • 563.02 ULU KELANTAN
  • 563.03 PASIR PUTEH
  • 563.04 BACHOK
  • 563.05 KOTA BAHRU
  • 563.06 MACHANG (Official Name) TUMPAT
  • 563.07 IPOH (Official Name) PASIR MAS
  • 563.08 MARANG (Official Name) MACHANG
  • 563.09 PENANG
  • 563.10 CHANGI (Official Name) IPOH
  • 563.11 LANGKAWI
  • 564.01 KANGAR
  • 564.02 KUBANG PASU
  • 564.03 ALOR STAR
  • 564.04 PADANG TERAP
  • 564.05 KUALA MUDA
  • 564.06 SEGAMAT (Official Name) BALING
  • 564.07 LUMUT
  • 564.08 BANDAR BAHRU
  • 564.09 PONTIAN (Official Name) CHANGI
  • 564.11 NIBONG TEBAL
  • 564.12 ALOR GAJAH + CORONATION (Official Name) KRIAN
  • 564.13 LARUT
  • 564.14 MATANG
  • 564.15 KATONG
  • 564.16 KUALA KANGSAR
  • 564.17 KINTA
  • 564.18 SELETAR
  • 564.19 TANGLIN
  • 564.20 BATANG PADANG
  • 564.21 SELAMA
  • 564.23 ULU SELANGOR
  • 564.24 KLANG
  • 564.25 KUALA LUMPUR
  • 564.26 ULU LANGAT
  • 564.27 KRIAN (Official Name) KUALA LANGAT
  • 564.28 SEREMBAN
  • 564.29 PANGKOR
  • 564.30 KUALA PILAH (Official Name) REMBAU
  • 564.31 TAMPIN
  • 564.32 BALING (Ofifcial Name) KUALA PILAH
  • 564.33 JELEBU
  • 564.34 PEKAN
  • 564.35 KUANTAN
  • 564.36 TEMERLOH
  • 564.37 TUMPAT (Official Name) BENTONG
  • 564.38 RAUB
  • 564.39 LIPIS
  • 564.40 MALACCA (Official Name) LUMUT

FMSR Class M

Origin - FMSR
Builder - Baldwin, USA
FMSR Class - M
Cylinder - 14 x 18 inches
FMSR Number range - 99-131, 234-236
Boiler Pressure - 160 psi
Driving Wheel Diameter - 37 inches
Water Capacity - 1,830 gallons
Introduced - 1920
Extinct - 1958
Weight Full - 53 tons
Tractive Effort - 12,257 lb

Supplied by Baldwin, reportedly for the construction department, and the engines later carried numbers in the "CD" series. Several were sent to Thailand during the war, and it is not clear how many were returned to Malaya.

Notes : Kra line (Tung Song - Kan Tang) is the southern part of the Burma - Siam Railway, north of the border with Malaya. 7 locos (122, 123, 125 & 127-130) were sent there by the Japanese army and 4 (122, 123, 125 & 130) were written off by FMSR in 1946. 122 was later repaired and was seen at Surat Thani on 31 Oct 1946 and shunting at Surat Ferry on 22 Apr 1947. It was derelict at Tung Song on 18 Oct 1949 and was officially sold to RSR in November 1951, who immediately sold it for scrap. 123, 125 and 130 were seen out of use on the Kra line in 1945 and derelict at Chumphorn on 18 Oct 1949. 128 & 129 were returned after the war and 127 was found in Kra in 1946 and returned to Prai where it was scrapped.

In addition to these 124 was destroyed during WWII, having reportedly been sent to Kra also. 126 was sold to the Nippon Mining Company in 1939 and reportedly used by the Japanese army on the East Coast line. FMSR re-acquired it after the war and used it to rebuilt the East Coast line until 1953. It was then overhauled and seen at Prai, later going to Singapore as shed pilot until withdrawal and scrapping in 1958.

122, 125 & 131 had all been fitted with vacuum brakes in 1924 and transferred to the main fleet as 99, 100 & 101 for eventual use on the Port Dickson branch, being renumbered 234, 235 & 236 around 1928 before being renumbered with the rest of the class in 1932. After WWII 131 was noted active at various points between Gemas and Prai until withdrawal in 1956.

KTM Class - 95
Original Railway No. & KTM No.

CD25 - 951.01
CD26 - 951.03
CD28 - 951.02
CD29 - 951.08
CD30 - 951.09
CD31 - 951.04
CD32 - 951.05
CD33 - 951.06
CD34 - 951.07

FMSR Class L

Designated as FMSR numbers 214 to 233, the FMSR Class L was introduced 1921 with the arrival of 20 Kitson locomotives (works numbers 5300 to 5319), which were completed and tested between January and April of 1921.

Ordered to eliminate double-heading of express services, the Class L was an improved and more powerful variant of the Class P, intended to haul longer coaches with lesser need for additional motive power. Like the Class P, the Class L was a 4-6-2 tender locomotive pulling an 8-wheel bogie tender. The Class L is 56' 4" long, weighs 88.4 tons and features cylinders measuring 17" by 24".

During Japanese occupation of Malaya in World War II, five Class Ls (FMSR 216, 220, 222, 224 and 229) were taken to the Thailand-Burma Railway. Following surrender by the Japanese in 1945, all five of the Class L were returned, with all Class Ls renumbered in 1946. The fleet continued to serve the FMSR and MR into the 1970s, by which the entire class would be withdrawn by MR. The first Class L built and the remaining Class L in the MR fleet, FMSR 214/MR 531.01, was donated to the National Museum in Kuala Lumpur in 1971, where it is now a permanent outdoor exhibit.

FMSR Class K - New K

New K (1928—1970s)

As the K Class designation was vacant following the retirement of the sole K Class locomotive in 1926, a new series of locomotives was introduced in the following year to take its place. Bearing FMSR numbers 151 to 161, the "new" FMSR Class K was introduced in 1928 for use for the then newly opened East Coast Line that served the East Coast of British Malaya, with 11 in total built. The Class K was delivered in two batches; the first in the form of seven locomotives built by Beyer-Peacock in 1927 (works numbers 6373 to 6379) and delivered 1928, followed by another four by Robert Stephenson in 1929 (works numbers 4013 to 4016) and delivered 1930. The locomotives were distinguished as K1 for those from the first batch and and K2 for those from the second batch.

Based on the earlier Class L, the Class K was a 4-6-2 tender locomotive with an 8-wheel bogie tender. The first batch of Class Ks were essentially improved version of the L Class; further improvement were made on the second batch. With an overall length of 56' 4" and cylinders measuring at 17" by 24", the Class K weighs in a total of 91.3 tons (55.5 tons from the locomotive and 35.8 tons from the tender).

While records exists of three Class K1s and three Class K2s shipped to Burma during Japanese occupation in World War II for use in the Thailand-Burma Railway, the entire K Class fleet was accounted for when it was renumbered in 1946. The K1 Class was entirely withdrawn between 1958 and 1959, while the K2 Class remain in use well into the 1970s, when all steam locomotives were withdrawn.

FMSR Class K - Old K

Old K (1908—1926)

Origin - Sungei Ujong Railway
Builder - Dubs, Scotland
FMSR Class - K
Cylinder - 12 x 18 inches
FMSR Number range - 102
Boiler Pressure - 130 psi
Driving Wheel Diameter - 42 inches
Introduced - 1899
Weight Full - 28 tons
Extinct - 1926

Like the J Class, the FMSR Class K originated as part of Sungei Ujong Railway's rolling stock, before the railway company was absorbed into FMSR in 1908.

The K Class consisted of only a single 1899 Dübs (works number 3621) 4-4-2T locomotive, and was significantly larger than the J Class.

The Class K was withdrawn on August 1926.

FMSR Class J

The FMSR Class J was a fleet of three 1891 Dübs (2462 to 2464) locomotives that served the Sungei Ujong Railway and was absorbed into the FMSR in 1908. Originally 0-6-2T tank locomotives, the trains were previously rebuilt as 4-4-2T locomotives in 1902. The trains were assigned FMSR numbers 99 to 101.

Having served for 20 years, the J Class was gradually withdrawn between the late 1910s and early 1920s. FMSR 99 was sold to the Malayan Collieries on April 1922, while FMSR 100 was retired on May 1919 and followed by the FMSR 101 on November 1924.

FMSR Class I

The FMSR Class I was built for the FMSR by three locomotive companies between 1907 and 1916 and delivered in five batches between 1908 and 1916.

Upon the delivery of the last batch, the Class I included a total of 31 locomotives. The Class I was a 0-6-4T tank locomotives with tanks of varying sizes: The first batch featured 800 gallon tanks, while the third batch featured 1200 gallon tanks.

The first batch, delivered 1908, encompassed five locomotives from Kitson (works numbers 4527 to 4531) built between December 1907 and January 1908, followed by an additional three from North British in 1912 (works numbers 19909 to 19911), eight and ten from Kitson in 1913 (works numbers 4946 to 4953) and 1914 (works numbers 5021 to 5030), and five from Hawthorn Leslie in 1916 (works numbers 3146 to 3150).

Between 1927 and 1945, 13 Class I were decommissioned.While 18 Class Is remained in service in 1946 to receive a new locomotive number, virtually all of the class were withdrawn from the FMSR's and MR's rolling stocks by 1953. Two Class Is were sold to the Malayan Collieries in 1951 and 1953.

FMSR Class H

The FMSR Class H was the first FMSR class to consist of locomotives entirely ordered after the formation of the FMSR. Delivered in the form of three batches between 1907 and 1914, three companies, Kitson, Nasmyth Wilson and Robert Stephenson, would produce a total of 54 Class H locomotives for the FMSR, while another 6 were delivered to the Johore Railway in 1908 before its absorption together with the rest of Johore Railway into in the FMSR in 1912.

The Class H consisted of 4-6-2 locomotives with 8-wheel, dual bogie tenders. While nearly consistent in design, 11 1908 Class H locomotives from Kitson featured thicker frames that increased each of their weights by over 2½ tons.

The Class Hs may be distinguished by the order of the batch they were in: The first batch of 17 locomotives delivered between 1907 and 1908 were referred as "Class H1" locomotives, the second batch of 17 locomotives delivered between 1908 and 1912 were referred as "Class H2" locomotives, while the last batch of 15 locomotives received between 1913 and 1914 were referred as "Class H3" locomotives (of which two were redesignated as a "Class H4" locomotives in 1924).

The entire Class H fleet remain in service until the entire stock of Class H1s was scrapped between 1930 and 1934. The H2s and H3s were partially decommissioned before 1946, but were selected in limited numbers in 1946 for use in the Malayan Railways: Six H2s were numbered MR 501.01 to 501.06, while five H3s were numbered MR 501.07 and 501.11. The remaining 11 Class Hs remained in service at least before the 1960s and 1970s.

FMSR Class G

Designated as FMSR numbers 36 and 69, the FMSR Class G was introduced in July 1901 with a starting fleet of 21 locomotives from both the Perak Railway and the Selangor Railway, followed by two from the Malacca Railway in 1905 and an additional 11 orders directed to the FMSR between 1903 and 1905, bringing a total of 34 locomotives. The Class G was thus the largest FMSR fleet to include locomotives absorbed from state railways following the formation of the FMSR.

While the Class Gs were largely similarly built 4-6-0 locomotives with six-wheel tenders; all 34 of them were manufactured by four separate locomotive companies between 1898 and 1905. 16 were from Kitson, 9 were from Hunslet, three were from Robert Stephenson and Company, and two were from Neilson, Reid and Company.

The Class G was largely retired between 1928 in 1938. The last two Class Gs were withdrawn from service in July 1947.

FMSR Class F

Designated as FMSR numbers 32 and 33, the FMSR Class F was a pair of Sharp Stewart and Company 4-4-0 locomotives with four-wheel tenders built in 1897 for the Selangor Railway (with Sharp Stewart works numbers 4267 and 4268).

Both locomotives were scrapped in 1929 and 1930.

FMSR Class E

Designated as FMSR numbers 30 and 31, the FMSR Class E was introduced in July 1901 as a fleet of two Kitson 4-6-0 locomotives with four-wheel tenders, both originated from the Perak Railway (built 1896 with works numbers 3681 and 3682). In comparison to the Class D, the Class E feature larger drive wheels.

The Class E was scraped entirely between 1929 and 1930.

FMSR Class D

Designated as FMSR numbers 22 to 25, the FMSR Class D was a series of 4-6-0 locomotives with four-wheel tenders that originated from the Selangor Railway and given the Class D designation upon its entry into the FMSR fleet in July 1901.

Consisting of only four locomotives, the Class D included two locomotives from Kitson (built 1894, numbers 3530 and 3531) and two from Dübs and Company (built 1895, numbers 3220 and 3221).

FMSR 24 was scraped in 1926, followed by the rest of the Class D in 1928.

FMSR Class C - New C

New C (1929—1970s)

Origin - FMSR
Builder - Nasmyth Wilson, and North British Locomotive Company, Scotland
FMSR Class - C
Cylinder - 14.5 x 22 ins
FMSR Number range - 18-33
Boiler Pressure - 250 psi
KTM Class - 40
Driving Wheel Diameter - 54 ins
Water Capacity - 2,000 gallons
Introduced - 1929
Extinct - c1973
Weight Full - 76 tons
Tractive Effort - 19272 lb

By 1929, all original Class C locomotives were removed from active service, allowing the Class C designation to be reassigned to a new series of locomotives. The "new" FMSR Class C locomotives was introduced in 1929, beginning with a fleet of five locomotives from Nasmyth, Wilson and Company and saw the addition of 11 from the North British Locomotive Company between 1939 and 1940, expanding the fleet to encompass 16 locomotives.

All Class C locomotives were 38' 11"-long 4-6-4T side tank engines with two cylinders measuring 14½" by 22". Differences may be noted with the 1929 Class C and the 1939—1941; among others, the 1929 series was lighter (73 tons compared to the later series' 74.1 tones) but featured a smaller fire grate (at 23.6 sq ft compared to the later series' 28 sq ft).

An additional six orders from North British were completed in 1941, but were redirected by the War Department of the United Kingdom to Egypt for use as military locomotives in World War II. The six locomotives were allocated FMSR numbers after the war, but a dispute over payment arose as the locomotives were no longer new. Subsequently all six locomotive were sold to the Royal Jordanian Hashemite Railway in 1949 and delisted from the FMSR by 1951.

The remaining Class Cs were presumably scrapped by Malayan Railways during the 1960s and 1970s.

KTM Number range (Name Carried) :

* 401.04 ?
* 401.05 ?




* 403.03 GUNONG BUBU
* 403.04 GUNONG GRAH
* 403.06 ?

FMSR Class C - Old C

Old C (1901—1928)

With seven originally built between 1893 and 1894, FMSR Class C locomotives were essentially 4-4-0T Class B locomotives with additional four-wheel tenders. As were other pre-FMSR locomotives, the Class Cs were absorbed from a state railway company, specifically, the Perak Railway, between 1901 and 1903. The Class Cs consisted of two locomotives from Neilson, three from Kitson & Company, and two from Hawthorn Leslie. All Class Cs were known to feature outer cylinders measuring 12" by 18", 3' 3" driving wheels, and 140 lbs of boiler pressure.

In 1907, the two Class C Hawthorn Leslie locomotives were passed to the then independent Johore Railway, two years before the opening of the state's line in 1909, and returned to the FMSR in 1912. All Class C locomotives would later be remove from service and scrapped between 1924 and 1928.

FMSR Class B

The 4-4-0T FMSR Class B locomotives were heavier, more powerful versions of the original Class A, with extended tanks. Also originated from local state railways, the series was, however, made up of a smaller number of locomotives, compared to the Class A, with only seven.

Like the Class A, the Class B was introduced in 1901 with the redesignation of the two Perak Railway locomotives, one from Hunslet, and another from Hawthorn Leslie. In 1910, the Class B fleet would see another addition, another Hunslet locomotive from the Johore Railway, followed by another three from Singapore Railway (two Hunslets and one Hawthorn Leslie) and two Hunslets from Johore Railway in 1912.

Class B locomotives were retired as new locomotives were delivered for the FMSR. While four Class B locomotives were removed from the active fleet during the 1920s with the last Class B withdrawn in 1932, three others were sold to the Malayan Collieries in 1923 and 1925.

FMSR Class A - New A

New A (1941—1946)

Encompassing only three 1928 Hunslet single engine 0-6-0T OCs, the "new" FMSR Class A was originally delivered to Singapore for use in the construction of the Sembawang Naval Base in 1929, and remained stored in the base after its construction was completed. In 1941, the FMSR acquired the locomotives, reintroducing the Class A designation for the locomotives. When introduced in 1941, the FMSR had retire the last original Class A locomotive, allowing the designation to be reused for a new series of locomotives.

The locomotives were only briefly used, surviving World War II, before renumbered by the FMSR in 1946 and sold to the Singapore Harbour Board in September of that year.

FMSR Class A - Old A

Old A (1901—1933)

The FMSR Class A was the first designated series of locomotives in use by the FMSR. Consisted of 18 4-4-0T tank locomotives originally purchased by numerous state railways, the locomotives served as the FMSR's backbone fleet before the arrival of newer FMSR-ordered locomotives.

The Class A was designated in July 1901 for 12 locomotives originally assigned for both the Perak Railway and Selangor Railway and manufactured between 1884 and 1898, consisting of 11 from manufactured by the Hunslet Engine Company and one from the Selangor Railway produced by Neilson & Company. The Class A designation was further assigned to two 1904 Hunslet locomotives from the Malacca Railway in 1905, and four 1901-1903 Singapore Railway Hunslet locomotives in 1912.

Several Class A Selangor Railway locomotives were known to have been converted to run on oil rather than firewood to cut cost, years before the formation of the FMSR Class A. In addition, the outer cylinders of the Class A were rebuilt with a dimension of 11" by 16" from the original 10" by 16".

The Class A was gradually retired beginning the 1920s when new locomotives were introduced into the FMSR network. From 1912 onwards, certain Class A's were also transferred to the Construction Department; FMSR 71 (Malacca Railway 2) was sold to Siam for use in coal mining assignments in 1924. The last Class A, FMSR 34 (Perak Railway 19), was withdrawn in 1933.

F.M.S.R No. 1 Lokomotif Terawal Negara

PERAK (nama awal) adalah lokomotif pertama sekali diperkenalkan dalam sistem rangkaian keretapi di Tanah Melayu. Lokomotif berkuasa wap ini dibawa masuk melalui
'The Crown Agents' (Straits Settlements) , di datangkan dari England oleh pembuatnya 'Ransomes and Rapier, pada 18 May 1881 untuk Keretapi Kerajaan Negeri Perak (Perak State Railway).

Pertama kalinya ia digunakan sebagai enjin untuk kerja pembinaan landasan antara Taiping dan Port Weld. Apabila lokomotif ini di serap menjadi sebahagian daripada keluarga FMSR pada tahun 1901 ia dinamakan sebagai F.M.S.R No. 1 seterusnya dihantar ke Sentul Work untuk kerja-kerja 'shunter'. Lokomotif ini telah diberhentikan perkhidmatannya pada tahun 1916 sehingga ia 'hilang' pada tahun 1916 ~ 1920.

Lady Clarke
The second locomotive was actually much older than PERAK and arrived in Malaya much earlier. LADY CLARKE was an 0-4-4T, Dübs 742/1874, Indian State Railway B class number 89.

In 1875 it was sold to the Maharaja of Johore, possibly for use on the short-lived Johore Wooden Railway, and later arrived on the Selangor Government Railway where it hauled the inaugural passenger train from Klang to Kuala Lumpur on 15th September 1885, being named LADY CLARKE after the wife of the Governor. It was withdrawn in 1893 following a collision but must have been repaired as it went on to become FMSR No 2 in 1901 and survived until scrapping in December 1912.

The third locomotive was R W Hawthorn 2046/1885, an 0-6-0ST with 14" x 20" cylinders and 3' 6" driving wheels, believed to have been named LILY or LILLY while on the Selangor Government Railway. It became FMSR 3 in 1901 and survived until scrapping in August 1924.

In 1888 a metre gauge 0-4-0ST was supplied by Kerr Stuart (at that time known as Dick, Kerr & Co) and sent to Port Dickson on order number 537.

It was built by Andrew Barclay as works number 309 and named SUNJEI UJONG, having 9" x 17" outside cylinders and 2' 6½" driving wheels. It later went to the Selangor Government Railway where it is believed to have been named LEILA and in 1901 became FMSR 4. In 1909 it was sold to a contractor for use on the G.K.S. Railway.

Hudswell Clarke 4-4-0T 364/1890 had outside cylinders 11" x 17" and 3' 3" driving wheels with a rigid wheelbase of 6' 6". The bogie wheels were 2' diameter and the weight in working order was 22 tons.

It went to the Selangor Government Railway, possibly as an alternate to the A/B class, and was named LADY MAXWELL. It became FMSR 14 and was scrapped in 1911. Photograph reproduced with permission from the Stephenson Locomotive Society, it is thought to be from the H M le Fleming collection.

0-4-0ST Dick Kerr 59/1893 went to the Selangor Government Railway and was believed to be named SYSYPHUS. It became FMSR 15 in 1901 and was scrapped in 1908.

le Fleming states that although the particulars for FMSR 3, 4 & 15 are correct the order of names are not certain. Note also that the spelling in his 1936 list states LILLY and SYSYPHUS while the 1938 list states LILY and SISYPHUS

Kerr Stuart supplied a metre gauge 0-4-0IST, Bagnalls 1092 of November 1889, to India, with 8" x 12" cylinders and 3' driving wheels. The owner was not identified and it was later used in Malaya - no further details available.

Kerr Stuart also supplied locomotives and equipment for the Penang Steam Tramway. The first locomotive was supposedly from Kitson but their records have no mention of this, although they supplied 16 to the Singapore Tramway in 1885 and 1887. The were two others from Falcon Engine & Car Works in 1885 & 1887 and named JOHORE and SIR HUGH LOWE respectively and another was named PENANG.

Detail info Click Here

Pacific Type Locomotives

The metre (1000 mm) gauge Malayan Railway was amongst the earliest railways in Asia to adopt the Pacific type locomotives, sixty engines of the Class H being built between 1907 - 1914. With a small volume of highly rated freight traffic it was possible to adopt standard engines for both passenger and freight services. Three coupled axles were enough to move the trains at moderate speeds over the whole Malayan rail network.

As a result of experience gained with subsequent classes of Pacific type locomotives the final design of Malayan Pacific locomotives was designed and 68 engines being eventually built. They had bar frames, steel fireboxes and the three cylinders 13"x24" (330x610 mm). Driving wheels had 54" diameter (1372 mm). Heating surface of the boiler was 1.109 sq ft (0.1030 m2) of which 218 sq ft (20.3 m2) was superheating surface. Grate area was 27 sq ft (2.5 m2).

Total weight in working order was 60.5 tons. Maximum axle load was 12.9 tons. Maximum speed in ordinary service was 50 mph (80 km/h). Three cylinders were provided with rotary cam poppet valves, the camshaft being divided to two parts, independently driven from each side of the engine. This avoided complete immobilization in case of breakdown on a long stretch of single track. These locomotives were all converted to burn oil fuel. During World War II , after the fall of Singapore the Japanese Southern Army Railway Engineering Troops transferred a number of older Malayan Pacifics to operate their 471 km (292.7 miles) Taimen Rensetsu Tetsudo, the Thailand - Burma Railway.

Some Pacifics were not returned to Malaya after the war but stayed in Thailand. When the rail connection was provided between Malayan and Siamese railways the Pacifics were common sight at the head of "Singapore" and "Bangkok" expresses as well as on the other passenger trains in domestic Malayan service. After the arrival of the main line diesel electric locomotives in the latter part of the 1950 the Pacifics lost all important trains and were transferred to less important trains. Many survived up the end of Malayan steam traction in 1970s.

Builder details:
  • H1 72 - 78 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4425 - 4432 / 1906
  • H1 79 - 82 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Nasmyth Wilson 839 - 842 / 1908
  • H1 88 - 98 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4569 - 4579 / 1908
  • H2 103 - 106 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4835 - 4838 / 1911
  • H2 107 - 112 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4866 - 4871 / 1912
  • H2 115 - 117 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4875 - 4877 / 1912
  • H2 118 - 121 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Stephenson 3502 - 3505 / 1913
  • H2 131 - 134 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Nasmyth Wilson 833 - 836 / 1908
  • H2 135 - 140 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4955 - 4959 / 1913
  • H2 141 - 144 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 4960 - 4963 / 1913
  • H3 162 - 166 2C1-n2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 5015 - 5019 / 1914
  • I1 182 - 185 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 5159 - 5162 / 1918
  • I1 186 - 201 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 22505 - 22520 / 1919
  • Q1 202 - 207 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Baldwin 51914 - 51957 / 1920
  • Q1 208 - 209 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Baldwin 51991 - 51992 / 1920
  • Q1 210 - 213 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Baldwin 52018 - 52021 / 1920
  • L1 214 - 233 2C1-h2 15 1/2"x24" 54" Kitson 5300 - 5319 / 1921 -> 531.01-20
  • K1 153" - 159" 2C1-h2 17"x24" 54 Beyer Peacock 6373 - 6379 / 1927 -> 541.01-07
  • K2 151" - 152" 2C1-h2 17"x24" 54 Stephenson 4013 - 4014 / 1927 -> 542.01-02
  • K2 160" - 161" 2C1-h2 17"x24" 54 Stephenson 4015 - 4016 / 1927 -> 542.03-04
  • S1 237 - 239 2C1-h3 (3)17"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 23679 - 23681 / 1928 -> 551.01-03
  • S2 240 - 247 2C1-h3 (3)17"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 23904 - 23911 / 1929 -> 552.01-08
  • S3 248 - 252 2C1-h3 (3)17"x24" 54" Beyer Peacock 6721 - 6725 / 1931 -> 553.01-05
  • O1 60" - 70" 2C1-h3 (3)12 1/2"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 24419 - 24429 / 1938 -> 561.01-11
  • O2 71" - 76" 2C1-h3 (3)12 1/2"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 25508 - 24513 / 1939 -> 562.01-06
  • O3 77" - 80" 2C1-h3 (3)13"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 24570 - 24573 / 1939 -> 563.01-03
  • O3 81" - 87" 2C1-h3 (3)13"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 24574 - 24580 / 1940 -> 563.04-11
  • O4 564.01 - 564.40 (3)13"x24" 54" North British Locomotive 25756 - 27595 / 1946

Tanjong Pagar Railway Station

The Tanjong Pagar Railway Station, located along Keppel Road, is the port of call for trains heading to and from Singapore. Constructed in 1932, it is the terminus for the West Coast line of the KTM (Keretapi Tanah Melayu) Railway line.

Built in 1932 on reclaimed swampland, the station's inaugural opening was conducted by Governor Sir Cecil Clementi Smith on 3 March 1932. It became the southernmost end of the Malayan Railway, serving the needs of Singapore town, particularly the transport of goods from its harbour. The station became one of the latest of the main terminus along the West Coast Line to be completed and thus had some of several unique designs of its time, both in the mechanics of its system and in the design of the station. Until 18 December 1988, friends and relatives could say their goodbyes at the platform, paying a mere 20 cents.

The station's architectural style is strongly European and said to be influenced by the architect of Finland's Helsinki Station, Eliel Saarinen. The entrance to the station is marked by four towering statues, symbols of Malaya's economic pillars. They are named Agriculture, Commerce, Transport and Industry; each personification holding symbols unique to their character. Just below the eaves of the windows, lionheads stand guard whilst a stately clock marks time in Roman numerals. A large dome raises the roof of the station's lobby. High up a wall in this lobby are the antiquated initials for the Federated Malay States Railway and the FMSR's crests. Colourful mosaic panelling stretching against the rest of the walls, portray Malayan economic scenes of the past: tongkangs by the harbour, tin-mining, bullock carts in rice fields. The mosaic was actually made of coloured rubber through a patented process created by the Singapore Rubber Works. The ticketing counter is made of solid teak and beside it is the Habib Railway Bookstore, established since 1936.

It is the only station along the Malayan Railway which has buffer stops, with this particular set designed by Ransomes & Rapier. The signalling system operated at the railway was inherited from the colonial government and is typical of that used in the United Kingdom. The Tanjong Pagar Railway Station is one of four major signal cabins along the West Coast line, the others being at Gemas, Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth. The Singapore station has a 24-lever box which is mechanically operated.

The 34 room Station Hotel at Tanjong Pagar Railway is the most recent built of three found in Malayan Railway stations. Ipoh and Kuala Lumpur had their Station Hotels in 1915 and 1910 respectively and all were run by Chinese contractors. Infact, Singapore's Station Hotel manager, Lim Jit Chin, received a Guiness Book of Record for being the second-longest serving hotel manager in the world. Besides the Station Hotel, the Lims also managed the Prairie Express Pub. Compared to the other two principal stations, the Singapore's station hotel is not as attractive as the view faces either the dock roads or a concrete awning. However, in its heydays, the hotel's services were considered equal to that of Raffles Hotel.

By Tan, Bonny written on 2000-02-22
National Library Board Singapore

Frank Swettenham and the founding of the FMSR

The formation of the Federated Malay States (FMS) in 1896 led to a centralisation of Residential power and improved coordination of development in the new founded federation. In the same year, the newly appointed residents-general of the FMS, Frank Swettenham, proposed a master plan to extend and connect railway networks within the FMS and Province Wellesley.

Swettenham's proposal encompassed three phases: The first was to be the construction of a "development" line towards the north that would connect Perak's railways with those of Selangor's and the Province Wellesley's, while running through valuable but underdeveloped land in between; the second phase consisted of an extension of the line to Kuala Lipis, Pahang's then administrative capital, to promote the development of the state's mineral industry; the third section was to be a southwards extension from the Selangor Railway's southern terminus in Cheras to Seremban, connecting Selangor Railway to Sungei Ujong Railway and providing direct connectivity from Prai to the north to Port Dickson to the south.

Swettenham's proposal was approved by the Colonial Office under the justification wide-ranging transport linkages would allow access to land for use in agriculture and diversify the region's sources of revenue, while improving administrative efficiency by linking the FMS with the Straits Settlements (widening the scope of the plan to include additional linkages to the Straits Settlements of Malacca and Singapore).

Construction of the connections began in 1897 and concluded in 1903 with the Prai-Port Dickson line completed. The FMSR was founded in 1901 in the process, combining assets of Perak Railway and Selangor Railway as the two railway networks were the first to be connected. Management of stations and railways within the two networks were turned over to the FMSR, while locomotives originally operated by the two companies were absorbed into the FMSR and renumbered in July 1901. The amalgamation of other railway companies into the FMSR would follow in the coming years.

15 July 2009

Keretapi Langgar Ular, Lembu

Gambar di bawah (arkib) menunjukkan antara pertembungan jentera dan haiwan, bagaimanapun jika haiwan yang terlibat lebih besar (gajah) atau sekumpulan kerbau/lembu di selekoh bencana mungkin boleh terjadi.

Sumber daripada - BaikPunya - http://www.ktmrailwayfan.com/

Sumber daripada - VehicleExaminer - http://www.ktmrailwayfan.com/